Electric fence is widely used in animal husbandry to deter livestock and protect the site from wild animals. Whole pastures protect such a simple and effective fence. In the modern era of general industrialization, interest in the electric fence appears in the field of private sector protection.
An electric fence is a fence of alternating wires through which current flows. The wire can be made of copper, aluminum, steel or another metal: the main condition is good electrical conductivity and a diameter of at least 1 mm.
The current strength in the electric fence is designed only for a painful blow that will cause the animal or person to abandon plans to approach the hedge.
An electrical impulse is given at intervals, so it does not cause injuries, only very unpleasant sensations. The fence is powered by a solar panel, battery or mains.
An electric fence for goats, alpacas, cows and other livestock is the cheapest and easiest way to protect your animals and allow them to move freely around the site without leaving it. And at the same time, do not allow other animals or intruders to enter private territory.
The advantages of electric fence
- Speed and ease of installation;
- Low price;
- Excellent light transmission;
- Simple repair and simple maintenance;
- Site security;
The lightness of the material does not require the construction of a foundation for the fence.
Choosing an electric fence as a site fence, it is worthwhile to clearly determine the goal pursued. If the main objective is to preserve livestock on the territory, the voltage in the network should be strong enough to make the herd avoid the fence.
Scheme of the device and installation of the electric fence
But an electric charge that is harmless to cattle can be dangerous for smaller animals. There may also be problems with the functioning of the electric fence on very dry ground. Such soil will not provide sufficient discharge to stop animals or criminals.
Although the electric fence is undemanding for additional maintenance, it must be periodically checked and the voltage level checked. If someone suffers from high voltage, the owner will be liable for the damage caused by the electric fence. On such a fence, warning signs are required on all sides. During a thunderstorm, the electrical fence must be disconnected and grounded. Although modern firms offer fences with guarantee protection against lightning.
Independent installation of an electric fence is not a very complicated process, although, as with any work with electricity, extreme care must be taken. To make an electric fence on your own hands, you will need the following tools and materials:
- Insulators for electric fences;
- Distribution block with solar panels, battery or mains;
- Wire and ground terminal;
- Grounding rods;
- Wire for the fence;
- Steel or wooden poles;
- Corner brackets;
- Jumper caliber 10-14.
Planning and preparation
Determination of the size and height of the fence. You also need to decide how many rows of wire will be needed, what distance will be between the posts and make preliminary calculations.
Acquisition of angle brackets. At the corners, an electric fence is attached to the corner bracket. Over six rows of wire will require double brackets.
Wooden or steel racks. Steel poles are easily installed by simple driving into the ground. Wooden fence posts are not subject to corrosion and are durable, although they can sink into the soil over time.
Choose a charger. If you select mains power, the fence will not work during a power outage. To keep the fence in constant operation, you need a battery. A practical and functional solution will be solar panels, if there is enough sunlight in this region.
Wire for electric fence. Instead of wire and electrical wires, you can use a special tape, which is more visible and not as dangerous as wiring.
Installation of electric fence
Distribution block installation. The place for the distribution block must be protected from moisture and be in close proximity to the electrical outlet. It is good to place it under a canopy, in a garage, place it on a wall or post. Until the fence is installed, the charger cannot be turned on.
Installation of ground rods. A rod of copper or steel is buried in the ground next to the power supply. At least 5 cm of the rod is left above the ground, the grounding pole itself should be about two meters. The ground wire is connected to the distribution block and the terminal using clamps. Observing a distance of 3-6 m, establish another rod.
Installation of support posts. Using a rope, the perimeter of the fence is marked and poles can be installed. The optimal distance between the posts is 2 m, and the depth of immersion in the ground is about 1.2 m.
Mounting brackets on corners and gates. At the corners, the voltage from the tensioned wire is the strongest, so angular brackets are installed. To do this, in a vertical pillar of the fence, an upright is installed at an angle, which becomes a support for the main pillar.
Distribution of insulators on support poles. The type of insulators will depend on the selected wire. Follow the instructions that are usually attached to such products.
Wire pulling. Distribution of wires on poles. Use special clamps, and do not wrap the wires around the pole. The optimal distance between the wires is 6–10 cm, which will not allow smaller animals to enter the territory. The upper wire is installed at the level of the shoulder of the animal, which must be kept on the site.
Wiring and connecting wires to the electric fence
System check. Now you can turn on the charger and use a voltmeter to check the entire perimeter of the fence. Indications should vary from 6 to 10 thousand volts. Use jumper 10-14 to connect and charge the line and once again take readings with a voltmeter. There should not be a strong decline at the farthest point of the fence – no more than 2 thousand volts compared to the readings of the nearest point from the power supply.
Useful Tips and Warnings
- Do not use barbed wire for an electric fence;
- You cannot stand close to the hedge while energized during a thunderstorm;
- Use warning signs that the hedge is live;
- At least twice a year, the fence should be checked with a voltmeter.